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Contents

1. Training strategy
2. Maps
3. Marginal information and symbols
4. Grids
5. Scale and distance
6. Direction
7. Overlays
8. Aerial photographs
  - Comparison with maps
  - Types
  - Types of film
  - Numbering and titling information
  - Scale determination
  - Indexing
  - Orienting of photograph
  - Point designation grid
  - Identification of photograph features
  - Stereovision
9. Navigation equipment and methods
10. Elevation and relief
11. Terrain association
12. Mounted land navigation
13. Navigation in different types of terrain
14. Unit sustainment

A. Field sketching
B. Map folding techniques
C. Units of measure and conversion factors
D. Joint operations graphics
E. Exportable training material
F. Orienteering
G. M2 compass
H. Additional aids
I. Foreign maps
J. Global positioning system
K. Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver

Survival Gear

Handheld GPS
Specialty Outdoor Gear
Digital Compasses
Survival Books
Hunting and Fishing Magazines

8-3. TYPES OF FILM

Types of film generally used in aerial photography include panchromatic, infrared, and color. Camouflage detection film is also available.

a.   Panchromatic. This is the same type of film that is used in the average hand-held small camera. It records the amount of light reflected from objects in tones of gray running from white to black. Most aerial photography is taken with panchromatic film.

b.   Infrared. This is a black-and-white film that is sensitive to infrared waves. It can be used to detect artificial camouflage materials and to take photographs at night if there is a source of infrared radiation.

c.   Color. This film is the same as that used in the average hand-held camera. It is limited in its use because of the time required to process it and its need for clear, sunny weather.

d.   Camouflage Detection. This film is a special type that records natural vegetation in a reddish color. When artificial camouflage materials are photographed, they appear bluish or purplish. The name of this film indicates its primary use.



Aerial photographs
Comparison with maps | Types | Types of film | Numbering and titling information | Scale determination | Indexing | Orienting of photograph | Point designation grid | Identification of photograph features | Stereovision |




Buy The Book This Site Is Based On
The 'Land Navigation' section of this site is based on 'Map Reading and Land Navigation', a public domain work published by the U.S. Department of Defense that is available for sale at Amazon.com.




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