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Contents

1. Training strategy
2. Maps
3. Marginal information and symbols
4. Grids
5. Scale and distance
6. Direction
7. Overlays
8. Aerial photographs
  - Comparison with maps
  - Types
  - Types of film
  - Numbering and titling information
  - Scale determination
  - Indexing
  - Orienting of photograph
  - Point designation grid
  - Identification of photograph features
  - Stereovision
9. Navigation equipment and methods
10. Elevation and relief
11. Terrain association
12. Mounted land navigation
13. Navigation in different types of terrain
14. Unit sustainment

A. Field sketching
B. Map folding techniques
C. Units of measure and conversion factors
D. Joint operations graphics
E. Exportable training material
F. Orienteering
G. M2 compass
H. Additional aids
I. Foreign maps
J. Global positioning system
K. Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver

Survival Gear

Handheld GPS
Specialty Outdoor Gear
Digital Compasses
Survival Books
Hunting and Fishing Magazines

8-8. POINT DESIGNATION GRID

Since aerial photographs are seldom exactly the same scale as a map of the same area, it is not feasible to print military grids on them. A special grid is used for the designation of points on photographs (Figure 8-16). This grid, known as the point designation grid, has no relation to the scale of the photo, to any direction, or to the grid used on any other photograph or map. It has only one purpose, to designate points on photographs.

Figure 8-16. Point designation grid.

Figure 8-16. Point designation grid.

a.   The point designation grid is rarely printed on photographs; therefore, it becomes the responsibility of each user to construct the grid on the photograph. All users must construct the grid in exactly the same way. Before the grid can be constructed or used, the photograph must be held so that the marginal information, regardless of where it is located, is in the normal reading position (Figure 8-17, step 1).

(1)   Draw lines across the photograph joining opposite reference marks at the center of each photograph (fiducial marks). If there are no fiducial marks, the center of each side of the photograph is assumed to be the location of the marks (Figure 8-17, step 2).

(2)   Space grid lines, starting with the center line, 4 centimeters (1.575 inches) apart (a distance equal to 1,000 meters at a scale of 1:25,000). The 1:25,000 map coordinate scale can be used for this dimension and to accurately designate points on the photograph, but this does not mean that distance can be scaled from the photograph. Extend the grid past the margins of the photograph so that a horizontal and vertical grid line fall outside the picture area (Figure 8-17, step 3).

(3)   Number each center line "50" and give numerical values to the remaining horizontal and vertical lines so that they increase to the right and up (Figure 8-17, step 4).

Figure 8-17. Constructing a point designation grid.

Figure 8-17. Constructing a point designation grid.

b.   The point designation grid is used, once the photograph is oriented, in the same manner as the grid on a map (Figure 8-18), read right and up. The coordinate scale used with the UTM grid on maps at the scale of 1:25,000 may be used to subdivide the grid square in the same manner as on a map. However, because the same point designation grid is used on all photographs, the coordinates of a point on the photograph must be prefixed by the identifying marginal information of the photograph.

Figure 8-18. Reading point designation grid coordinates.

Figure 8-18. Reading point designation grid coordinates.

c.   A grid coordinate using the point designation grid (Figure 8-19) consists of three parts:

(1)   The letters "PDG" to indicate an aerial photograph rather than a map grid coordinate.

(2)   The mission and photo negative number to identify which photograph is being used.

(3)   The six numerical digits to locate the actual point on the photograph.

Figure 8-19. Locating the grid coordinate on a point designation grid.

Figure 8-19. Locating the grid coordinate on a point designation grid.



Aerial photographs
Comparison with maps | Types | Types of film | Numbering and titling information | Scale determination | Indexing | Orienting of photograph | Point designation grid | Identification of photograph features | Stereovision |




Buy The Book This Site Is Based On
The 'Land Navigation' section of this site is based on 'Map Reading and Land Navigation', a public domain work published by the U.S. Department of Defense that is available for sale at Amazon.com.




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