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Contents

1. Training strategy
2. Maps
3. Marginal information and symbols
4. Grids
5. Scale and distance
6. Direction
  - Methods of expressing direction
  - Base lines
  - Azimuths
  - Grid azimuths
  - Protractor
  - Declination diagram
  - Intersection
  - Resection
  - Modified resection
  - Polar coordinates
7. Overlays
8. Aerial photographs
9. Navigation equipment and methods
10. Elevation and relief
11. Terrain association
12. Mounted land navigation
13. Navigation in different types of terrain
14. Unit sustainment

A. Field sketching
B. Map folding techniques
C. Units of measure and conversion factors
D. Joint operations graphics
E. Exportable training material
F. Orienteering
G. M2 compass
H. Additional aids
I. Foreign maps
J. Global positioning system
K. Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver

6-1. METHODS OF EXPRESSING DIRECTION

Military personnel need a way of expressing direction that is accurate, is adaptable to any part of the world, and has a common unit of measure. Directions are expressed as units of angular measure.

a.   Degree. The most common unit of measure is the degree (°) with its subdivisions of minutes (') and seconds (").

1 degree = 60 minutes.

1 minute = 60 seconds.

b.   Mil. Another unit of measure, the mil (abbreviated ), is used mainly in artillery, tank, and mortar gunnery. The mil expresses the size of an angle formed when a circle is divided into 6,400 angles, with the vertex of the angles at the center of the circle. A relationship can be established between degrees and mils. A circle equals 6400 mils divided by 360 degrees, or 17.78 mils per degree. To convert degrees to mils, multiply degrees by 17.78.

c.   Grad. The grad is a metric unit of measure found on some foreign maps. There are 400 grads in a circle (a 90-degree right angle equals 100 grads). The grad is divided into 100 centesimal minutes (centigrads) and the minute into 100 centesimal seconds (milligrads).



Direction
Methods of expressing direction | Base lines | Azimuths | Grid azimuths | Protractor | Declination diagram | Intersection | Resection | Modified resection | Polar coordinates |





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