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1. Training strategy
2. Maps
3. Marginal information and symbols
4. Grids
5. Scale and distance
6. Direction
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8. Aerial photographs
9. Navigation equipment and methods
10. Elevation and relief
11. Terrain association
12. Mounted land navigation
  - Principles
  - Navigator's duties
  - Movement
  - Terrain association navigation
  - Dead reckoning navigation
  - Stabilized turret alignment navigation
  - Combination navigation
13. Navigation in different types of terrain
14. Unit sustainment

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D. Joint operations graphics
E. Exportable training material
F. Orienteering
G. M2 compass
H. Additional aids
I. Foreign maps
J. Global positioning system
K. Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver

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When preparing to move, the effects of terrain on navigating mounted vehicles must be determined. You will cover great distances very quickly, and you must develop the ability to estimate the distance you have traveled. Remember that 0.1 mile is roughly 160 meters, and 1 mile is about 1,600 meters or 1.6 kms. Having a mobility advantage helps while navigating. Mobility makes it much easier if you get disoriented to move to a point where you can reorient yourself.

NOTE: To convert kmph to mph, multiply by .62. (9 kmph x .62 = 5.58 mph). To convert mph to kmph, divide mph by .62 (10 mph 0.62 = 16.12 kmph).

a.   Consider Vehicle Capabilities. When determining a route to be used when mounted, consider the capabilities of the vehicles to be used. Most military vehicles are limited in the degree of slope they can climb and the type of terrain they can negotiate. Swamps, thickly wooded areas, or deep streams may present no problems to dismounted soldiers, but the same terrain may completely stop mounted soldiers. The navigator must consider this when selecting a route.

(1)   Most vehicles will knock down a tree. The bigger the vehicle, the bigger the tree it can knock down. Vehicles cannot knock down several trees at once. It is best to find paths between trees that are wide enough for your vehicle. Military vehicles are designed to climb 60 percent slopes on a dry, firm surface (Figure 12-1).

Figure 12-1. Tracked vehicle capabilities.

Figure 12-1. Tracked vehicle capabilities.

(2)   You can easily determine approximate slope; just look at the route you have selected. If there is a contour line in any 100 meters of map distance on that route, it is a 10 percent slope. If there are two contour lines, it is 20 percent, and so forth. If there are four contour lines in any 100 meters, look for another route.

(3)   Side slope is even more important than the slope you can climb. Normally, a 30 percent slope is the maximum in good weather. If you traverse a side slope, do it slowly and without turns. Rocks, stumps, or sharp turns can cause you to throw the downhill track under the vehicle, which would mean a big recovery task.

(4)   For tactical reasons, you will often want to move in draws or valleys because they give you cover. However, side slopes force you to move slowly.

NOTE: The above figures are true for a 10-meter or a 20-foot contour interval. If the map has a different contour interval, just adjust the arithmetic. For instance, with one contour line in 100 meters, a 20-meter interval would give a 20 percent slope.

b.   Know the Effects of Weather on Vehicle Movement. Weather can halt mounted movement. Snow and ice are obvious dangers, but more significant is the effect of rain and snow on soil load-bearing ability. Cross-country vehicles may be restricted to road movement in heavy rain. If it has rained recently, adjust your route to avoid flooded or muddy areas. A mired vehicle only hinders combat capability.

c.   Prepare Before Movement. Locate the start point and finish point on the map. Determine the map's grid azimuth from start point to finish point and convert it to a magnetic azimuth. Determine the distance between the start point and finish point or any intermediate points on the map and make a thorough map reconnaissance of that area.

Mounted land navigation
Principles | Navigator's duties | Movement | Terrain association navigation | Dead reckoning navigation | Stabilized turret alignment navigation | Combination navigation |

Buy The Book This Site Is Based On
The 'Land Navigation' section of this site is based on 'Map Reading and Land Navigation', a public domain work published by the U.S. Department of Defense that is available for sale at Amazon.com.

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