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Contents

1. Training strategy
2. Maps
3. Marginal information and symbols
4. Grids
5. Scale and distance
6. Direction
7. Overlays
8. Aerial photographs
9. Navigation equipment and methods
10. Elevation and relief
11. Terrain association
12. Mounted land navigation
  - Principles
  - Navigator's duties
  - Movement
  - Terrain association navigation
  - Dead reckoning navigation
  - Stabilized turret alignment navigation
  - Combination navigation
13. Navigation in different types of terrain
14. Unit sustainment

A. Field sketching
B. Map folding techniques
C. Units of measure and conversion factors
D. Joint operations graphics
E. Exportable training material
F. Orienteering
G. M2 compass
H. Additional aids
I. Foreign maps
J. Global positioning system
K. Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver

Survival Gear

Handheld GPS
Specialty Outdoor Gear
Digital Compasses
Survival Books
Hunting and Fishing Magazines

12-5. DEAD RECKONING NAVIGATION

Dead reckoning is moving a set distance along a set line. Generally, it involves moving so many meters along a set line, usually an azimuth in degrees. There is no accurate method of determining a direction in a moving vehicle. A magnetic vehicle-heading reference unit may be available in a few years; for now, use a compass.

a.   With Steering Marks. This procedure is the same for vehicle travel as on foot.

(1)   The navigator dismounts from the vehicle and moves away from the vehicle (at least 18 meters).

(2)   He sets the azimuth on the compass and picks a steering mark (rock, tree, hilltop) in the direction on that azimuth (Figure 12-4).

(3)   He remounts and has the driver identify the steering mark and proceeds to it in as straight a line as possible.

(4)   On arrival at the steering mark or on any changes in direction, he repeats the first three steps above for the next leg of travel.

Figure 12-4. Determining an azimuth, dismounted.

Figure 12-4. Determining an azimuth, dismounted.

b.   Without Steering Marks. This procedure is used only on flat, featureless terrain.

(1)   The navigator dismounts from the vehicle, which is oriented in the direction of travel, and moves at least 18 meters to the front of the vehicle.

(2)   He faces the vehicle and reads the azimuth to the vehicle. By adding or subtracting 180, he determines the forward azimuth (direction of travel).

(3)   On order from the navigator, the driver drives on a straight line to the navigator.

(4)   The navigator remounts the vehicle, holds the compass as it will be held while the vehicle is moving, and reads the azimuth in the direction of travel.

(5)   The compass will swing off the azimuth determined and pick up a constant deviation. For instance, say the azimuth was 75 while you were away from the vehicle. When you remounted and your driver drove straight forward, your compass showed 67. You have a deviation of -8. All you need to do is maintain that 67 compass heading to travel on a 75 magnetic heading.

(6)   At night, the same technique can be used. From the map, determine the azimuth you are to travel. Convert the grid azimuth to a magnetic azimuth. Line the vehicle up on that azimuth, then move well in front of it. Be sure it is aligned correctly. Then mount, have the driver move slowly forward, and note the deviation. If the vehicle has a turret, the above procedure works unless you traverse the turret; this changes the deviation.

(7)   The distance factor in dead reckoning is easy. Just determine the map distance to travel and add 20 percent to convert to ground distance. Use your vehicle odometer to be sure you travel the proper distance.



Mounted land navigation
Principles | Navigator's duties | Movement | Terrain association navigation | Dead reckoning navigation | Stabilized turret alignment navigation | Combination navigation |




Buy The Book This Site Is Based On
The 'Land Navigation' section of this site is based on 'Map Reading and Land Navigation', a public domain work published by the U.S. Department of Defense that is available for sale at Amazon.com.




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