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Contents

1. Training strategy
2. Maps
3. Marginal information and symbols
4. Grids
5. Scale and distance
6. Direction
7. Overlays
8. Aerial photographs
9. Navigation equipment and methods
  - Types of compasses
  - Lensatic compass
  - Compass handling
  - Using a compass
  - Field-expedient methods
  - Global positioning system
10. Elevation and relief
11. Terrain association
12. Mounted land navigation
13. Navigation in different types of terrain
14. Unit sustainment

A. Field sketching
B. Map folding techniques
C. Units of measure and conversion factors
D. Joint operations graphics
E. Exportable training material
F. Orienteering
G. M2 compass
H. Additional aids
I. Foreign maps
J. Global positioning system
K. Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver

9-1. TYPES OF COMPASSES

The lensatic compass is the most common and simplest instrument for measuring direction. It is discussed in detail in paragraph 9-2. The artillery M2 compass is a special-purpose instrument designed for accuracy; it will be discussed in Appendix G. The wrist/pocket compass is a small magnetic compass that can be attached to a wristwatch band. It contains a north-seeking arrow and a dial in degrees. A protractor can be used to determine azimuths when a compass is not available. However, it should be noted that when using the protractor on a map, only grid azimuths are obtained.



Navigation equipment and methods
Types of compasses | Lensatic compass | Compass handling | Using a compass | Field-expedient methods | Global positioning system |





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