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Contents

1. Training strategy
2. Maps
3. Marginal information and symbols
4. Grids
5. Scale and distance
6. Direction
7. Overlays
8. Aerial photographs
9. Navigation equipment and methods
10. Elevation and relief
11. Terrain association
  - Orienting the map
  - Locations
  - Terrain association usage
  - Tactical considerations
  - Movement and route selection
  - Navigation methods
  - Night navigation
12. Mounted land navigation
13. Navigation in different types of terrain
14. Unit sustainment

A. Field sketching
B. Map folding techniques
C. Units of measure and conversion factors
D. Joint operations graphics
E. Exportable training material
F. Orienteering
G. M2 compass
H. Additional aids
I. Foreign maps
J. Global positioning system
K. Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver

11-7. NIGHT NAVIGATION

Darkness presents its own characteristics for land navigation because of limited or no visibility. However, the techniques and principles are the same as that used for day navigation. The success in nighttime land navigation depends on rehearsals during the planning phase before the movement, such as detailed analysis of the map to determine the type of terrain in which the navigation is going to take place and the predetermination of azimuths and distances. Night vision devices (Appendix H) can greatly enhance night navigation.

a.   The basic technique used for nighttime land navigation is dead reckoning with several compasses recommended. The point man is in front of the navigator but just a few steps away for easy control of the azimuth. Smaller steps are taken during night navigation, so remember, the pace count is different. It is recommended that a pace count obtained by using a predetermined 100-meter pace course be used at night.

b.   Navigation using the stars is recommended in some areas; however, a thorough knowledge of constellations and location of stars is needed (paragraph 9-5c). The four cardinal directions can also be obtained at night by using the same technique described for the shadow-tip method. Just use the moon instead of the sun. In this case, the moon has to be bright enough to cast a shadow.



Terrain association
Orienting the map | Locations | Terrain association usage | Tactical considerations | Movement and route selection | Navigation methods | Night navigation |





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