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1. Training strategy
2. Maps
3. Marginal information and symbols
4. Grids
5. Scale and distance
6. Direction
7. Overlays
8. Aerial photographs
9. Navigation equipment and methods
10. Elevation and relief
11. Terrain association
12. Mounted land navigation
13. Navigation in different types of terrain
14. Unit sustainment
  - Set up a sustainment program
  - Set up a train-the-trainer program
  - Set up a land navigation course

A. Field sketching
B. Map folding techniques
C. Units of measure and conversion factors
D. Joint operations graphics
E. Exportable training material
F. Orienteering
G. M2 compass
H. Additional aids
I. Foreign maps
J. Global positioning system
K. Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver

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The unit commander provides specific guidance on what he requires in the development of a land navigation course. It depends upon the unit's mission, training plan, and tasks to be trained. There are basic guidelines to use when setting up a course.

a.   Determine the Standards. The unit commander determines the standards for the course. Recommended standards are as follows:

(1)   Distance between points: no less than 300 meters; no more than 1,200 meters.

(2)   Total distance of lanes: no less than 2,700 meters; no more than 11,000 meters.

(3)   Total number of position stakes: no less than seven for each lane; no more than nine for each lane.

(4)   Time allowed: no less than three hours; no more than four hours.

b.   Decide on the Terrain. The unit should use terrain that is similar to terrain they will be using in tactical exercises. Terrain should be different each time training is conducted; the training area for a dismounted course needs to be at least 25 square kilometers. Mounted courses require twice as much terrain so that vehicles are not too close to each other.

c.   Perform a Map and Ground Reconnaissance. Check the terrain to determine position stake locations, look for hazards, and to develop training briefings.

(1)   Plot the locations of your position stakes on a 1:50,000-scale map.

(2)   Fabricate or order position stakes.

(3)   Request support from the local engineer or field artillery unit to survey the position stakes in.

(4)   Survey the position stakes in and emplace them.

(5)   Certify the course by having your SMEs negotiate each lane of the course.

(6)   Prepare course requirement sheets and print them.

(7)   Complete a risk assessment of the training area.

(8)   Begin teaching.

This sequence can be used to develop any type of land navigation course. The difference in each course depends on the commander's guidance.

Unit sustainment
Set up a sustainment program | Set up a train-the-trainer program | Set up a land navigation course |

Buy The Book This Site Is Based On
The 'Land Navigation' section of this site is based on 'Map Reading and Land Navigation', a public domain work published by the U.S. Department of Defense that is available for sale at Amazon.com.

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