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Contents

1. Introduction
  - Components of fitness
  - Principles of exercise
  - Fitt factors
  - Warm-up and cool-down
  - Phases of fitness conditioning
  - Age as a factor in physical fitness
2. Cardiorespiratory fitness
3. Muscular endurance and strength
4. Flexibility
5. Nutrition and fitness
6. Environmental considerations
7. Injuries

A. Physiological differences between the sexes

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FITT FACTORS

Certain factors must be part of any fitness training program for it to be successful. These factors are Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type. The acronym FITT makes it easier to remember them.

Factors for a successful training program are Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type; "FITT".
FITT Factors Applied to Physical Conditioning Program
  Cardio-
respiratory Endurance
Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance Flexibility
Frequency 3 - 5 times per week 3 times per week 3 - 5 times per week 3 times per week Warm up and cool down:
Stretch before and after each exercise session

Developmental Stretching:
To improve flexibility stretch 2-3 times/week

Intensity 50 - 90% HRR* 3 - 7 RM* 12+ RM 8 - 12 RM Tension and slight discomfort, NOT PAIN.
Time 20 minutes of more The time required to do 3 - 7 repetitions of each exercise The time required to do 12+ repetitions of each exercise The time required to do 8 - 12 repetitions of each exercise Warm up and cool down stretches:
10 - 15 seconds per stretch

Developmental Stretching:
20 - 40 seconds per stretch

Type Running
Swimming
Cross Country Skiing
Rowing
Bicycling
Jumping Rope
Walking
Hiking
Free Weights
Resistance Machines
Body-Weight Exercises (Push-ups/Sit-ups/Pull-ups/Dips, etc.)
Stretching:
Static
Passive
P.N.F.
*HRR - Heart Rate Reserve      *RM - Repetition Maximum

FREQUENCY

Vigorous physical fitness training should be conducted 3 to 5 times per week. For optimal results, one should strive to conduct 5 days of physical training per week. Ideally, at least three exercise sessions for CR fitness, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and flexibility should be performed each week to improve fitness levels. Thus, for example, to obtain maximum gains in muscular strength, one should have at least three strength-training sessions per week. Three physical activity periods a week, however, with only one session each of cardiorespiratory, strength, and flexibility training will not improve any of these three components.

With some planning, a training program for the average person can be developed which provides fairly equal emphasis on all the components of physical fitness. The following training program serves as an example.

In the first week, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday are devoted to CR fitness, and Tuesday and Thursday are devoted to muscle endurance and strength. During the second week, the training days are flip-flopped: muscle endurance and strength are trained on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and CR fitness is trained on Tuesday and Thursday. Stretching exercises are done in every training session to enhance flexibility. By training continuously in this manner, equal emphasis can be given to developing muscular endurance and strength and to CR fitness while training five days per week.

In certain circumstances, some muscular and some CR training can be done during each daily training session as long as a "hard day/recovery day" approach is used. For example, if one has a hard run on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, one may also choose to run on Tuesday and Thursday. However, on Tuesday and Thursday the intensity and/or distance/time should be reduced to allow recovery. Depending on the time available for each session and the way training sessions are conducted, all components of fitness can be developed using a three-day-per-week schedule. However, a five-day-per-week program is much better than three per week.

Numerous other approaches can be taken when tailoring a fitness program to meet one's goals as long as the principles of exercise are not violated. Such programs, when coupled with good nutrition, will help keep one fit to win.

INTENSITY

Training at the right intensity is the biggest problem in most exercise programs. The intensity should vary with the type of exercise being done. Exercise for CR development must be strenuous enough to elevate the heart rate to between 60 and 90 percent of the heart rate reserve (HRR). (The calculation of percent HRR is explained in Chapter 2) Those with low fitness levels should start exercising at a lower training heart rate (THR) of about 60 percent of HRR.

For muscular strength and endurance, intensity refers to the percentage of the maximum resistance that is used for a given exercise. When determining intensity in a strength-training program, it is easier to refer to a "repetition maximum" or "RM." For example, a 10-RM is the maximum weight that can be correctly lifted 10 times. An 8-12 RM is the weight that can be lifted 8 to 12 times correctly. Doing an exercise "correctly" means moving the weight steadily and with proper form without getting help from other muscle groups by jerking, bending, or twisting the body. For the average person who wants to improve both muscular strength and endurance, an 8-12 RM is best.

The person who wants to concentrate on muscular strength should use weights which let him do three to seven repetitions before his muscles fatigue. Thus, for strength development, the weight used should be a 3-7 RM. On the other hand, the person who wants to concentrate on muscular endurance should use a 12+ RM. When using a 12+ RM as the training intensity, the more repetitions performed per set, over time, the greater will be the improvement in muscular endurance. Conversely, the greater the number of repetitions performed, the smaller will be the gains in strength. For example, a person who regularly trains with a weight which lets him do 100 repetitions per exercise (a 100-RM) greatly increases his muscular endurance but minimally improves his muscular strength.

All exercise sessions should include stretching during the warm-up and cool-down.One should stretch so there is slight discomfort, but no pain, when the movement is taken beyond the normal range of motion.

TIME

Like intensity, the time spent exercising depends on the type of exercise being done. At least 20 to 30 continuous minutes of intense exercise must be used in order to improve cardiorespiratory endurance.

For muscular endurance and strength, exercise time equates to the number of repetitions done. For most people, 8 to 12 repetitions with enough resistance to cause muscle failure improves both muscular endurance and strength. As people progress, they will make better strength gains by doing two or three sets of each resistance exercise.

Flexibility exercises or stretches should be held for varying times depending on the objective of the session. For warming-up, such as before a run, each stretch should be held for 10 to 15 seconds. To improve flexibility, it is best to do stretching during the cool-down, with each stretch held for 30 to 60 seconds. If flexibility improvement is a major goal, at least one session per week should be devoted to developing it.

TYPE

Type refers to the kind of exercise performed. When choosing the type, one should consider the principle of specificity. For example, to improve one's level of CR fitness (the major fitness component in the 2-mile run), one should do CR types of exercises.

The basic rule is that to improve performance, one must practice the particular exercise, activity, or skill he wants to improve. For example, to be good at push-ups, one must do push-ups. No other exercise will improve push-up performance as effectively.



Introduction
Components of fitness | Principles of exercise | Fitt factors | Warm-up and cool-down | Phases of fitness conditioning | Age as a factor in physical fitness |





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