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Contents

1. Introduction
  - Components of fitness
  - Principles of exercise
  - Fitt factors
  - Warm-up and cool-down
  - Phases of fitness conditioning
  - Age as a factor in physical fitness
2. Cardiorespiratory fitness
3. Muscular endurance and strength
4. Flexibility
5. Nutrition and fitness
6. Environmental considerations
7. Injuries

A. Physiological differences between the sexes

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WARM-UP AND COOL-DOWN

One must prepare the body before taking part in organized PT, unit sports competition, or vigorous physical activity. A warm-up may help prevent injuries and maximize performance. The warm-up increases the body's internal temperature and the heart rate. The chance of getting injured decreases when the heart, muscles, ligaments, and tendons are properly prepared for exertion. A warm-up should include some running-in-place or slow jogging, stretching, and calisthenics. It should last five to seven minutes and should occur just before the CR or muscular endurance and strength part of the workout. After a proper warm-up, one is ready for a more intense conditioning activity.

One should cool down properly after each exercise period, regardless of the type of workout. The cool-down serves to gradually slow the heart rate and helps prevent pooling of the blood in the legs and feet. During exercise, the muscles squeeze the blood through the veins. This helps return the blood to the heart. After exercise, however, the muscles relax and no longer do this, and the blood can accumulate in the legs and feet. This can cause a person to faint. A good cool-down will help avoid this possibility.

One should walk and stretch until their heart rates return to less than 100 beats per minute (BPM) and heavy sweating stops. This usually happens five to seven minutes after the conditioning session.



Introduction
Components of fitness | Principles of exercise | Fitt factors | Warm-up and cool-down | Phases of fitness conditioning | Age as a factor in physical fitness |





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