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Contents

1. Introduction
2. Psychology of survival
3. Survival planning and survival kits
4. Basic survival medicine
5. Shelters
6. Water procurement
7. Firecraft
8. Food procurement
9. Survival use of plants
10. Poisonous plants
11. Dangerous animals
12. Field-expedient weapons, tools, and equipment
13. Desert survival
14. Tropical survival
15. Cold weather survival
16. Sea survival
17. Expedient water crossings
18. Field-expedient direction finding
19. Signaling techniques
20. Survival movement in hostile areas
21. Camouflage
22. Contact with people
23. Survival in man-made hazards

A. Survival kits
B. Edible and medicinal plants
C. Poisonous plants
D. Dangerous insects and arachnids
E. Poisonous snakes and lizards
F. Dangerous fish and mollusks
G. Clouds: foretellers of weather
H. Contingency plan of action format

Survival Gear

Handheld GPS
Specialty Outdoor Gear
Digital Compasses
Survival Books
Hunting and Fishing Magazines

Elapidae

Elapidae

A group of highly dangerous snakes with powerful neurotoxic venom that affects the nervous system, causing respiratory paralysis. Included in this family are coral snakes, cobras, mambas, and all the Australian venomous snakes. The coral snake is small and has caused human fatalities. The Australian death adder, tiger, taipan, and king brown snakes are among the most venomous in the world, causing many human fatalities.

Only by examining a dead snake can you positively determine if it is a cobra or a near relative (Figure E-5). On cobras, kraits, and coral snakes, the third scale on the upper lip touches both the nostril scale and the eye. The krait also has a row of enlarged scales down its ridged back.

You can find the cobras of Africa and the Near East in almost any habitat. One kind may live in or near water, another in trees. Some are aggressive and savage. The distance a cobra can strike in a forward direction is equal to the distance its head is raised above the ground. Some cobras, however, can spit venom a distance of 3 to 3.5 meters. This venom is harmless unless it gets into your eyes; then it may cause blindness if not washed out immediately. Poking around in holes and rock piles is dangerous because of the chance of encountering a spitting cobra.

Laticaudinae and Hydrophidae

A subfamily of elapidae, these snakes are specialized in that they found a better environment in the oceans. Why they are in the oceans is not clear to science.

Sea snakes differ in appearance from other snakes in that they have an oarlike tail to aid in swimming. Some species of sea snakes have venom several times more toxic than the cobra's. Because of their marine environment, sea snakes seldom come in contact with humans. The exceptions are fisherman who capture these dangerous snakes in fish nets and scuba divers who swim in waters where sea snakes are found.

There are many species of sea snakes. They vary greatly in color and shape. Their scales distinguish them from eels that have no scales.

Sea snakes occur in salt water along the coasts throughout the Pacific. There are also sea snakes on the east coast of Africa and in the Persian Gulf. There are no sea snakes in the Atlantic Ocean.

There is no need to fear sea snakes. They have not been known to attack a man swimming. Fishermen occasionally get bit by a sea snake caught in a net. The bite is dangerous.

For information on a specific poisonous snake or lizard, click on one of the links below:


  Snake Families:

  - Colubridae
  - Crotalidae
  - Elapidae
  - Viperidae

  POISONOUS SNAKES OF THE AMERICAS:

  - American copperhead
  - Bushmaster
  - Coral snake
  - Cottonmouth
  - Eastern diamondback rattlesnake
  - Eyelash pit viper
  - Fer-de-lance
  - Jumping viper
  - Mojave rattlesnake
  - Tropical rattlesnake
  - Western diamondback rattlesnake

  POISONOUS SNAKES OF EUROPE:

  - Common adder
  - Long-nosed adder
  - Pallas' viper
  - Ursini's viper

  POISONOUS SNAKES OF AFRICA AND ASIA:

  - Boomslang
  - Bush viper
  - Common cobra
  - Egyptian cobra
  - Gaboon viper
  - Green mamba
  - Green tree pit viper
  - Habu pit viper
  - Horned desert viper
  - King cobra
  - Krait
  - Levant viper
  - Malayan pit viper
  - McMahon's viper
  - Mole viper or burrowing vipe
  - Palestinian viper
  - Puff adder
  - Rhinoceros viper or river jack
  - Russell's viper
  - Sand viper
  - Saw-scaled viper
  - Wagler's pit viper or temple viper

  POISONOUS SNAKES OF AUSTRALASIA:

  - Australian copperhead
  - Death adder
  - Taipan
  - Tiger snake

  POISONOUS SEA SNAKES:

  - Banded sea snake
  - Yellow-bellied sea snake

  POISONOUS LIZARDS:

  - Gila monster
  - Mexican beaded lizard


Poisonous snakes and lizards



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