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1. Training strategy
2. Maps
3. Marginal information and symbols
4. Grids
5. Scale and distance
6. Direction
7. Overlays
8. Aerial photographs
9. Navigation equipment and methods
10. Elevation and relief
11. Terrain association
12. Mounted land navigation
13. Navigation in different types of terrain
14. Unit sustainment
  - Set up a sustainment program
  - Set up a train-the-trainer program
  - Set up a land navigation course

A. Field sketching
B. Map folding techniques
C. Units of measure and conversion factors
D. Joint operations graphics
E. Exportable training material
F. Orienteering
G. M2 compass
H. Additional aids
I. Foreign maps
J. Global positioning system
K. Precision lightweight global positioning system receiver


The purpose of setting up a sustainment program in the unit is to provide soldiers with training that reinforces and builds on the training that they have received in the institution. All soldiers should receive this training at least twice a year. The program also provides the unit with a means of identifying the areas in which the soldiers need additional training.

a.   Training Guidance. The unit commander must first determine the levels of proficiency and problems that his unit has in land navigation. This determination can be done through after-action reports from the unit's rotations to NTC/JRTC, ARTEP final reports, feedback from his subordinates, personal observation, and annual training. Once the unit commander decides where his training time should be concentrated, he can issue his training guidance to his subordinate leaders. He also directs his staff to provide training sites, resources, and time for the units to train land navigation. It is recommended that land navigation be trained separately, not just included as a subtask in tactical training.

b.   Certification. The unit commander must also provide his subordinate commanders with a means of certifying training. The unit staff must provide subject matter experts to ensure the training meets the standards decided upon by the unit commander. Instructors should be certified to instruct, and courses should be certified before the unit uses it.

c.   Program Development. The sustainment program should meet the requirements of all of the unit's soldiers. It should address all skills from basic map reading to leaders' planning and executing a route. The program should cover the following:

  • Diagnostic examination.

  • Map reading instruction/review.

  • Land navigation skills training.

  • Dead reckoning training/practice.

  • Terrain association training/practice.

  • Land navigation written/field examination.

  • Leaders' training and testing.

The sustainment program should be developed and then maintained in the unit's training files. The program should be developed in training modules so that it can be used as a whole program or used separately by individual modules. It should be designed so the commander can decide which training modules he will use, depending on the proficiency of the unit. The unit commander need only use those modules that fit his training plan.

Unit sustainment
Set up a sustainment program | Set up a train-the-trainer program | Set up a land navigation course |

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