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1. Introduction
2. Cardiorespiratory fitness
  - Physiology of aerobic training
  - Fitt factors
  - Running
  - Alternate forms of aerobic exercise
3. Muscular endurance and strength
4. Flexibility
5. Nutrition and fitness
6. Environmental considerations
7. Injuries

A. Physiological differences between the sexes


As mentioned in Chapter 1, a person must integrate several factors into any successful fitness training program to improve his fitness level. These factors are summarized by the following words which form the acronym FITT. Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type. They are described below as they pertain to cardiorespiratory fitness. A warm-up and cool-down should also be part of each workout.


Frequency refers to how often one exercises. It is related to the intensity and duration of the exercise session. Conditioning the CR system can best be accomplished by three adequately intense workouts per week. Trainers should do these on alternate days. By building up gradually, one can get even greater benefits from working out five times a week. However, one should recognize the need for recovery between hard exercise periods and should adjust the training intensity accordingly. One must also be aware of the danger of overtraining and recognize that the risk of injury increases as the intensity and duration of training increases.


Intensity is related to how hard one exercises. It represents the degree of effort with which one trains and is probably the single most important factor for improving performance. Unfortunately, it is the factor many people ignore.

Changes in CR fitness are directly related to how hard an aerobic exercise is performed. The more energy expended per unit of time, the greater the intensity of the exercise. Significant changes in CR fitness are brought about by sustaining training heart rates in the range of 60 to 90 percent of the heart ratereserve (HRR). Intensities of less than 60 percent HRR are generally inadequate to produce a training effect, and those that exceed 90 percent HRR can be dangerous.

Exercisers should gauge the intensity of their workouts for CR fitness by determining and exercising at their training heart rate (THR). Using the THR method lets them find and prescribe the correct level of intensity during CR exercise. By determining one's maximum heart rate, resting heart rate, and relative conditioning level, an appropriate THR or intensity can be prescribed.

The heart rate during work or exercise is an excellent indicator of how much effort a person is exerting. Keeping track of the heart rate lets one gauge the intensity of the CR exercise being done. With this information, one can be sure that the intensity is enough to improve his CR fitness level.

Following are two methods for determining training heart rate (THR). The first method, percent maximum heart rate (% MHR), is simpler to use, while the second method, percent heart rate reserve (%HRR), is more accurate. Percent HRR is the recommended technique for determining THR.

Intensity is probably the single most important factor for improving performance.

Percent MHR Method

With this method, the THR is figured using the estimated maximal heart rate. A person determines his estimated maximum heart rate by subtracting his age from 220. Thus, a 20-year-old would have an estimated maximum heart rate (MHR) of 200 beats per minute (220 - 20 = 200).

By determining one's maximum heart rate, resting rate, and conditioning level, an appropriate THR can be prescribed.

To figure a THR that is 80 percent of the estimated MHR for a 20-year-old in good physical condition, multiply 0.80 times the MHR of 200 beats per minute (BPM). This example is shown below.


% x MHR = THR


0.80 x 200 BPM = 160 BPM

When using the MHR method, one must compensate for its built-in weakness. A person using this method may exercise at an intensity which is not high enough to cause a training effect. To compensate for this, a person who is in poor shape should exercise at 70 percent of his MHR; if he is in relatively good shape, at 80 percent MHR; and, if he is in excellent shape, at 90 percent MHR.

Percent HRR Method

A more accurate way to calculate THR is the percent HRR method. The range from 60 to 90 percent HRR is the THR range in which people should exercise to improve their CR fitness levels. If a person knows his general level of CR fitness, he can determine which percentage of HRR is a good starting point for him. For example, if he is in excellent physical condition, he could start at 85 percent of his HRR; if he is in reasonably good shape, at 70 percent HRR; and, if he is in poor shape, at 60 percent HRR.

Most CR workouts should be conducted with the heart rate between 70 to 75 percent HRR to attain, or maintain, an adequate level of fitness. People who have reached a high level of fitness may derive more benefit from working at a higher percentage of HRR, particularly if they cannot find more than 20 minutes for CR exercise. Exercising at any lower percentage of HRR does not give the heart, muscles, and lungs an adequate training stimulus.

Before anyone begins aerobic training, he should know his THR (the heart rate at which he needs to exercise to get a training effect).

The example below shows how to figure the THR by using the resting heart rate reserve (HRR). A 20-year-old male in reasonably good physical shape is the example.

Step 1: Determine the MHR by subtracting the person's age from 220.

220 - age = MHR

220 - 20 = 200 BPM

STEP 2: Determine the RHR in beats per minute (BPM) by counting the resting pulse for 30 seconds, and multiply the count by two. A shorter period can be used, but a 30-second count is more accurate. This count should be taken while the person is completely relaxed and rested. How to determine heart rate reserve (HRR) by subtracting the RHR from the estimated MHR. If the person's RHR IS 69 BPM, the HRR is calculated as shown here.


200 BPM - 69 BPM = 131 BPM

STEP 3: Calculate the THR based on 70 percent of HRR (a percentage based on a good level of CR fitness).

(% x HRR) + RHR = THR

(0.70X131 BPM)+69 BPM=160.7 BPM

As shown, the percentage (70 percent in this example) is converted to the decimal form (0.70) before it is multiplied by the HRR. The result is then added to the resting heart rate (RHR) to get the THR. Thus, the product obtained by multiplying 0.70 and 131 is 91.7. When 91.7 is added to the RHR of 69, a THR of 160.7 results. When the calculations produce a fraction of a heart beat, as in the example, the value is rounded off to the nearest whole number. In this case, 160.7 BPM is rounded off to give a THR of 161 BPM. In summary, a reasonably fit 20-year-old with a resting heart rate of 69 BPM has a training heart rate goal of 161 BPM. To determine the RHR, or to see if one is within the THR during and right after exercise, place the tip of the third finger lightly over one of the carotid arteries in the neck. These arteries are located to the left and right of the Adam's apple. Another convenient spot from which to monitor the pulse is on the radial artery on the wrist just above the base of the thumb. Yet another way is to place the hand over the heart and count the number of heart beats.

During aerobic exercise, the body will usually have reached a "Steady State" after five minutes of exercise, and the heart rate will have leveled off. At this time, and immediately after exercising, the trainer should monitor his heart rate.

He should count his pulse for 10 seconds, then multiply this by six to get his heart rate for one minute. This will let him determine if his training intensity is high enough to improve his CR fitness level.

For example, use the THR of 161 BPM figured above. During the 10-second period, the trainer should get a count of 27 beats (161/6= 26.83 or 27) if he is exercising at the right intensity. If his pulse rate is below the THR, he must exercise harder to increase his pulse to the THR. If his pulse is above the THR, he should normally exercise at a lower intensity to reduce the pulse rate to the prescribed THR. He should count as accurately as possible, since one missed beat during the 10-second count, multiplied by six, gives an error of six BPM.

A person who maintains his THR throughout a 20- to 30-minute exercise period is doing well and can expect improvement in his CR fitness level. He should check his exercise and post-exercise pulse rate at least once each workout. If he takes only one pulse check, he should do it five minutes into the workout.


Time, or duration, refers to how long one exercises. It is inversely related to intensity. The more intense the activity, the shorter the time needed to produce or maintain a training effect; the less intense the activity, the longer the required duration. To improve CR fitness, a person must train for at least 20 to 30 minutes at his THR.


Only aerobic exercises that require breathing in large volumes of air improve CR fitness. Worthwhile aerobic activities must involve the use of large muscle groups and must be rhythmic. They must also be of sufficient duration and intensity (60 to 90 percent HRR). Examples of primary and secondary exercises for improving CR fitness are as follows:


  • Running.

  • Rowing.

  • Jogging.

  • Skiing (cross-country).

  • Walking (vigorous).

  • Exercising to music.

  • Rope skipping.

  • Bicycling (stationary).

  • Swimming.

  • Bicycling (road/street).

  • Stair climbing.

SECONDARY (Done with partners or opponents of equal or greater ability.)

  • Racquetball (singles).

  • Basketball (full court).

  • Handball (singles).

  • Tennis (singles).

The primary exercises are more effective than the secondary exercises in producing positive changes in CR fitness.

The secondary activities may briefly elevate the heart rate but may not keep it elevated to the THR throughout the entire workout.

Cardiorespiratory fitness
Physiology of aerobic training | Fitt factors | Running | Alternate forms of aerobic exercise |

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